outer landscape was mapped and charted between the sixteenth
and nineteenth centuries - even into the furthest regions of
the heavens. The
inner landscape has
opened up in this century to the un-ordained through secular
enquiry into the
realm of consciousness”"
attention may be our most valuable personal resource.
We deploy our attention as an instrument of our consciousness
and in so doing we create what we experience as ‘identity’.
Our experience of identity is the gateway to our experience
of reality. Substantially,
how we experience our identity creates the experience we have of
reality. Everything we
believe is real. What we
do not believe is incapable of being real for us until we decide to
believe it. Of course,
we may have beliefs that we are unwilling to acknowledge or beliefs
that we have forgotten -
even if we continue to act upon them.
Ach sin sceal eile.
turning our attention, not to the detail of our surroundings, but to
the generality of the landscape, we subtly re-define our sense of
reality, by adjusting our perspective and disciplining our
our identity is modified by our appreciation of what we perceive.
This allows us to glimpse the constancy of consciousness
within which context, identity can shift without detrimental
landscape throws it back to us:
are we merely its consumers or are we its ultimate creators?
propose to explore these questions through a sequence of reflective
new science is good as long as it helps to bring in gold.
It is good as long as it doesn't contradict conventional
'truths'. Just as the
Sun no longer spins its path around
earth - something which obviously didn't
stop happening from one moment to the next - when Galileo
changed our perception on that subject.
the age of the Renaissance, in the age when the verb of the era was
'To Discover', geometry began to chafe against the confines
of its own paper landscape and
set off to colonise three dimensional space.
is the greatest achievement of Renaissance painting? (from whence
the title of this paper derives): if nature is written in
mathematical characters ( as Galileo tells us), and if mathematical
characters are themselves instruments of human intelligence then
painting must be the source of the new vision, the new experience of
Federico Andahazi "The
would also refer you to the current issue (1997) of the Landscape
Forum proceedings and its title.
would like your attention please for a moment.
Look at me. Observe me.
Observe my outline, my form,
my dimensions and to
observe the space that I occupy.
Notice the space, feel how it feels. Is everybody
have you got an impression of me? This is important
because I want to talk for a moment
about that impression – your impression.
Your impression is what I will be discussing.
So its important that you can be confident that you have an
impression of me so that we will all know what we're talking about.
OK? Is everybody comfortable with that?
the impression that you have of me - where did it come from?
I admit that this is much easier to do this with an object. Try it
during the rest of the forum, do however respect the other speakers.
It is much easier to do it with a stone or a leaf or a building -
with something that doesn't move or speak and I encourage you to try
it if you have an available moment.
It has to do with directing our attention and then working
out, by feeling essentially who creates the impression we experience
of whatever it is that our attention rests upon.
had great trepidation about bringing this paper to the forum, but I
believe that I am just following on from a theme introduced earlier
today by Eric van Lennep Hyland.
who creates the impression that you are experiencing of this space,
of this room, of the National Landscape Forum?
let's take the exercise outdoors.
Please, don't move. But
summon to your own mind, if you would, an image that you have, your
impression of a favourite landscape, of a particularly striking or
impressive landscape. Summon to mind your impression of the
landscape – notice its dimensions, its form, its outlines in
whatever dimensions it exists. Feel how it feels and notice who
creates the impression
that you are experiencing.
you for your patience.
the introduction to his book 'Architect or Bee' professor Mike
Cooley quotes from Karl
architect will construct in his imagination that which he will ultimately erect in reality.
At the end of every labour process, we get that which existed
in consciousness at the commencement of the process".
moving on from there -
the Renaissance can be called, as Andahazi and other writers call it
'The Age of Discovery', and if we have had since, the 'Age of
Industrialisation', and 'The Age of Conflict' and whatever other
'Ages' we want to use so as to divide history up into manageable
then you come to a point where it is appropriate to ascribe a
label or description to our own age.
We can wait a century or two and let the historians do it, or
we can choose to do it
is where I believe the Forum intersects with what I am creating.
outer landscape was mapped and charted principally from the
sixteenth to the nineteenth century - even into the furthest reaches
of the space – we have cartographers descriptions.
The inner landscape
too, to which Eric referred earlier, has opened up in this century
to the un-ordained through secular enquiry into
the realm of consciousness. There is a book title that says:
"We've had 100 years of psychoanalysis, and things
if we were to decide now to define our era and the impression that
our era makes upon ourselves. We could chose to labal it as an ' Age
of 'The Age of Aquarius' I know, but let that pass).
And we could
decide that, if it is we who create in our consciousness, the
impressions of what we experience, then we create in our
consciousness our experience of the material landscape; we create in
our consciousness individually the universes that we inhabit, which
become visible in the landscapes we experience. And if we follow
that through to its social, economic and political consequences, we
are left to wonder why would we choose to create for ourselves an
universe that is less than what we would most positively appreciate?
if we were to develop a premise that it is we ourselves that create
every impression we experience, and that ( in Galileo's words),
nature, which is 'external' to those impressions, external to our
consciousness, is written in mathematical characters, which in turn have been created, within consciousness, by human
intelligence, and that, in Marx's words, it is our processes of
consciousness which "previously create" the realities that
we go on to experience............
we then have a fresh perspective on landscape?
we see landscape through the eye of its definitive artist?
we see landscape through the eye of its creator?
what are the implications of that?
Q & A
One of the things that seems to be emerging this afternoon is
a slight change in perspective from the external to the internal.
Having studied landscapes area through the lens of
archaeology now, one of the things that appears to be emerging is
that we are our landscape and our landscape is us.
What we see outside, what we react against, what we don't
like - whether we like a
tree, whether we hate a house -
that is a reflection of ourselves.
Why does one person want a particular house and another
person not? Why have we
developed into a state where we use landscape which is the
cumulative experience of humanity and the earth, (the environment in
which we live, the environment we create and we are created by in
turn), why do we use this as a soap box to criticise each other
without actually reaching out and taking each other's hand and
saying why? Why do you
want this, why do you like this, why don't I like it?
Why do I want what I want, why are we different and what can
we learn from each other?
I think the conference is taking a very interesting turn.
Agenda 21 if you like, we started off by using the word
have to reconcile the economic, the environmental and the third
expression we need to use is 'social equity'.
Social equity includes things like parity of esteem, parity
of opportunity and a greater, more equitable distribution of wealth.
So really the whole discussion should take place in that
the point that Gaye Moynihan made this morning is that we have to
develop indicators to cover these three areas, indicators which will
measure sustainability, for example if we have the highest rates of
asthma in the world, that is not sustainable.
So under the headings 'social equity, economic and
environment' we have to develop the indicators, we have to do what
Gaye Moynihan said. The
inner landscape, the spiritual side is all part of that because man
is a spiritual animal too.
Paul Byrne, Ballyfermot Partnership:
I am a landscaper and stone mason and Erik van Lennep Hyland
was talking about the landscape.
In Ballyfermot we have a scheme going in the schools.
We haven't got a landscape in Ballyfermot now, nothing is
left of it, and we are bringing the landscape to the school and we
are building gardens there, myself and John.
When we did our first school, it was designed by the two of
us and what we did was bring the parents in, they gave us the bit of
land and I just laid down the foundations for the garden and said
'Right, dig in, that's what you are doing' and they built it.
But in the process we found a hedgehog in the garden and out
of four or five hundred pupils in the school in Ballyfermot, not one
had ever seen a real live hedghog, which I thought was sad.
They were coming out class after class looking at this
lack is caused by bad development.
When I was a kid in Ballyfermot I could walk up to Kildare
just going through the fields, now I can't even walk up the road.
We have to try and do something about this. Try and hang on
I would like to say how extremely interesting I found Des
Gunning's dissertation. I
have often found myself with a client going to see a particular
site, when you go there first you just see a site perhaps in a
field, and you have a certain perception of that landscape.
You are then presented with the plans for a house and
immediately your perception of that landscape plus the house
changes. Again you talk
to the client, the person who is going to live there and you
discover that they have a totally different outlook on that same
area and again your perception of the entire thing has to change
find it very interesting that there is a special sort of development
or process going on in that situation.■
you are spending your next free summer afternoon taking a leisurely
walk through an ingratiating but quite undramatic landscape. What
you will be at once aware of, and aware of far more intensely than
any particular colours or forms or sounds, will be what I describe
as the smell of the day. In the next place, and before you
concentrate on any particular objects, you will be vividly conscious
of the touch of the day. By this I mean the warmth or chill of the
atmosphere, the exhalations of cold or heat from the actual soil
under your feet, and, above all, the feel of the wind on your bare
skin. But now in the third place we come to the crucial point of
all: namely the taste of the day.”
[John Cowpers] Powys means by “taste” is the combined appeal of
the senses, or, in his down-to-earth words, “chewing the cud of
Tuan writing in ‘Passing Strange and Wonderful’(New York: Island
Press, 1993) on an extract from John Cowpers Powys ‘The Art of
Growing Old’(London: Jonathan Cape, 1944)